The article explains the technological advancements in diabetes management which help to monitor their blood sugar and insulin intake with more precision and accuracy which helps in effective diagnosis of disease. Diabetes is a persistent disease that is due to improper functioning of the pancreas which is bound to produce insulin. Insulin functions to provide glucose from the blood to enter into cells of the body for energy. Nearly 371 million people are affected by diabetes Types Diabetes is mainly due to a shortage of insulin hormones when the body produces less or no insulin. It can be broadly classified into Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 occurs when the body does not produce insulin at all. Type 2 occurs when the body does not respond to insulin. The blood sugar level is considered high when the glucose level is higher than 130 mg/dL before a meal and higher than 180 mg/dL 2 hours after having a meal. Symptoms of hyperglycemia are visible when the glucose level reaches 250 mg/dL. Hyperglycemia can be acute due to meals with high carbohydrates, stress or any illness. It can be chronic due to undiagnosed diabetes which can generate a toxic effect on tissues. Hyperglycemia can cause cellular damage, nerve damage, and cardiovascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes has affected over 30 million Americans and is the seventh leading cause of death. The American Diabetes Association provides general treatment goals and guidelines to measure the quality of care for diabetes. This standard of care treatment is manually updated by the members of the ADA committee to ensure better treatment.
Here are some of the promising technologies we may see this year to diagnose and manage diabetes better. 1. Smart Insulin Pumps They skip all the guesswork and make the necessary calculations to assist in insulin dosing. The degree of smartness is enhanced based on advancement in technology. Today, insulin pumps can collect data on multiple levels to avoid an overdose of insulin. The X2 insulin pump is one such device which is developed by Tendem Diabetes Care Inc. and is used to implant drugs into the patient. The US FDA has classified this product into a new category called Alternate Controller Enabled Infusion Pumps. It has an automated drug system that enables the drug delivery commands to receive, execute and confirm. It can be used in isolation as well as with other medical devices for drug delivery. 2. New Glucagon Formulations Glucagon is a treatment for hypoglycemia or low blood sugar. Two new versions of this treatment have been found out to help diabetes patients. One version is "puff up your nose" which was created by a researcher named Eli Lilly for the quick uplifting of blood sugar. It is dry nasal powder glucagon which is found effective and reviewed in both Europe and the US. The other version is a glucagon emergency pen developed by Xeris Pharmaceuticals. It is room temperature liquid placed in auto-injector which does not require any preparation or mixing. 3. Tubeless Insulin Pumps Omnipod has replaced traditional insulin delivery systems. It is a waterproof insulin pump that is approved in mid-2018. The device is Bluetooth enabled and has a touchscreen with a personal diabetes manager (PDM). The device can be positioned in areas where insulin shots are taken and can be worn up to 3 days. It does not require any tubing and can connect without wire to PDM. It has an elevated security protocol System. 4. Advanced Diabetes Management System Diabetes management system plays a vital role in managing this chronic disease. With technologies like the Internet of Things, these devices are getting better in terms of accuracy and precision. Medtronics, the world's largest medical device company is putting efforts in this direction. The company has decided to stop the manufacturing of older pumps and to develop new devices. Guardian Connect System comprises of a wearable sensor and two mobile apps that all together provide complete diabetes management for people on insulin injections. 5. Smart Insulin Pens A newer and smarter insulin pen is another technological advancement that helps in recording insulin doses automatically. Preloaded with insulin, these pen logs the time amount and insulin type you have injected and reminds you to take the right dose at the right time. Inpen from Companion Medical is one device that comes with a companion smartphone app and a tablet advisor that works through Bluetooth technology is available to US users. There are other devices like Esysta and Gocap that would be knocking the doors of the healthcare industry soon.